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含重金属离子废水处理工艺

发表日期:2020-08-31 16:49 文章编辑:苏州昊诺新闻编辑部 浏览次数: 所属栏目:产品选型

1、ZHANGQIYILAI,SHUITIZHONGJINSHUWURANYIZHIBEISHOURENMENGUANZHU.YOUYULISHIYILIU、SHENGCHANJISHU、JINGYINGGUIMODENGFANGMIANDEYUANYIN,YOUSEJINSHUCAIXUAN、YELIANDENGXINGYECHANSHENGDEHANZHONGJINSHULIZIFEISHUIZHANGQIDEBUDAOYOUXIAOZHILI,ZHISHISHUITIZHONGJINSHUWURANRIQUYANZHONG.YOUYUJUYOUDUXINGDA、LIUCUNJIU、BUKESHENGWUJIANGJIE、YISHENGWUFUJIDENGTEDIAN,JIDINONGDUDEZHONGJINSHUWURANDOUYOUKENENGDUISHENGTAIHUANJINGHERENTIZAOCHENGYANZHONGDEWEIHAI.YINCI,HANZHONGJINSHULIZIFEISHUIBIXUYAOJINXINGYANGECHULI.

  CHANGYONGDEHANZHONGJINSHULIZICHULIFANGFAYOUHUAXUECHENDIAN、LIZIJIAOHUAN、DIANXUNING、MOFENLIDENGCHUANTONGWUHUAFA,YIJIZHIWUXISHOU、WEISHENGWUXIFUDENGSHENGWUXIUFUFA.CHUANTONGWUHUAFAPUBIANCUNZAICHENGBENGAO、NENGHAODA、YICHANSHENGERCIWURANDENGQUEDIAN,SHIJIYINGYONGSHIJUXIANXINGYUELAIYUEMINGXIAN;ERSHENGWUXIUFUFAJIBENSHANGCHUYUQIBUJIEDUAN,JISHUBUGOUCHENGSHU,SHOUZIRANTIAOJIANZHIYUEMINGXIAN,YISHIYENANYIQUANMIANTUIGUANG.XIANGDUIYUCHUANTONGWUHUAFAHESHENGWUXIUFUFA,XIFUFAJUYOUCHENGBENSHIZHONG、NENGHAOJIAODI、JISHUCHENGSHU、SHOUZIRANTIAOJIANZHIYUEXIAO、BUYICHANSHENGERCIWURANDENGYOUSHI,ZAIHANZHONGJINSHULIZIFEISHUICHULIZHONGDEDAOJIAOWEIGUANGFANDEYINGYONG.

  YINGYONGXIFUFADEGUANJIANZAIYUXIFUCAILIAODEXUANZEYUZHIBEI.ZAIZHONGDUOXIFUJIZHONG,GUIZAOTUZUOWEIYIZHONGSHENGWUCHENGYINGUIZHIYAN,YINJUBEIBIBIAOMIANJIDA、WEIKONGYUBIAOMIANHUOXINGJITUANDUO、BIAOMIANCHENGFUDIANXINGDENGDUTELIHUAXINGZHIERYONGYOUYIDINGDEXIFUNENGLI,BEIGUANGFANYONGYUXIFUSHUITIZHONGJINSHUHESESU.DANYOUYUTIANRANGUIZAOTUHANYOUZAZHIQIELIHUAGOUZAOCUNZAIQUEXIAN,XIANZHILEXIFUNENGLIDEFAHUI,XUYAOTONGGUOGAIXINGYIGAISHANKONGXIJIEGOU,CHONGFENTIGAOXIFUNENGLI.MUQIAN,GUONEIWAIZHUYAOCAIYONGDANYICHANGGUIFANGFAGAIXINGGUIZAOTU,BUNENGXIANZHUTIGAOGUIZAOTUXIFUNENGLI.YINCI,JINXINGGUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGYANJIUJUYOUZHONGYAOXIANSHIYIYI.

  YANJIUBIAOMING,ZHUCHENGJISHUNENGGOUYOUXIAOGAISHANZHISHI、MENGTUOSHI、PENGRUNTUDENGZHANTUKUANGWUJIGUIZAOTUDECENGJIANHUOKONGDAOJIEGOU,JINERTISHENGQIXIFUNENGLI,DANQIANTISHIXUYAODUIGAIXINGDUIXIANGJINXINGBIYAODECHUNHUA、JUNYIHUACHULI.WEICI,BENYANJIUYIZHUCHENGJISHUWEIHEXIN,FUYISUANHUOHUA、NAHUA、BEISHAODENGCHANGGUIWUHUAGAIXINGJISHU,XINGCHENGSUANHUOHUA-NAHUA-ZHUCHENG-BEISHAOZUHEGONGYIDUIGUIZAOTUJINXINGFUHEGAIXING,YIQIDAFUDUTIGAOQIXIFUNENGLI,BINGCAIYONGXSHEXIANYANSHE、FULIYEBIANHUANHONGWAIGUANGPU、SAOMIAODIANJINGDENGFENXISHOUDUANFENXIGUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGQIANHOUJIEGOUHEXINGNENGDEBIANHUA,CHUBUTANTAOFUHEGAIXINGJILI,WEIGUIZAOTUGAIXINGJIHANCd2+FEISHUIDECHULITIGONGKEXUEYIJU.

  2 CAILIAOYUFANGFA

        2-1 SHIYANCAILIAO

  GUIZAOTU:GOUZIYUNNANTENGCHONGXIANZHULVJICHANG,DUIMIDU0.5 g·cm-3,BIBIAOMIANJI22.5 cm2·g-1,ZHUYAOHUAXUECHENGFENWEISiO2,TONGSHIHANYOUSHAOLIANGAl2O3、Fe2O3、CaO、MgOHEYOUJIZHI.SHIYONGQIANGUO10MUTURANGSHAIQUCHUYUANKUANGDAIRUDEZAZHI,YONGQULIZISHUIFANFUCAXI,QUCHUGUIZAOTUKELIBIAOMIANZAZHI,ERHOUYU105 ℃HONGGAN,LENGQUE、YANMO,GUO100MUTURANGSHAI,QUSHAIXIATUMIBI、GANZAOBAOCUNBEIYONG.

  HANCd2+CHUBEIYE:ZHUNQUECHENGQU2.2818 g 3CdSO4·8H2ORONGYUQULIZISHUIZHONG,RONGJIEWANQUANHOUDINGRONGZHI1000 mL,JIDE1000 mg·L-1DEHANCd2+BIAOZHUNCHUBEIYE,BAOCUNYUJIEJINGSHIJIPINGZHONGBEIYONG.

  JUQIANGJILVZHUHUAYE:ZAIYUNSUJIAOBANTIAOJIANXIA,JIANGYIDINGTIJIBUTONGNONGDU(0、0.2、0.5、1.0、2.0 mol·L-1)DENaOHRONGYEYI1.0 mL·min-1DESUDUFENBIEDIRUAlCl3RONGYEZHONG,SHIOH/AlMOERBIFENBIEWEI1.0、2.0、2.2、2.4、2.6;ERHOUJIXUJIAOBAN120 min,HENGWEN(60 ℃)CHENHUA24 h,JIDESUOXUZHUHUAYE.

  2.2 SHIYANFANGFA

        2.2.1 FUHEGAIXINGGUIZAOTUZHIBEI

  FUHEGAIXINGGUIZAOTUZHIBEIGONGYIBAOKUO4GEBUZHOU,YICIWEISUANHUOHUA、NAHUA、ZHUCHENG、BEISHAO.①SUANHUOHUA:QUYIDINGLIANGTIJIFENSHUFENBIEWEI5%、10%、12%、15%、18%DELIUSUAN,ANYIDINGYEGUBIJIARUGUIZAOTUZHONG,HUNHEJUNYUN,HENGWEN(80 ℃)JIARE120 minZHIWEIFEI,QIJIANJIASHUIBAOCHIYEMIANPINGHENG,LENGQUEHOULIXIN,QUSHANGQINGYE,YONGQULIZISHUIFANFUQINGXI,ZHIZHIpHZHIWEI6.0;RANHOUYU105 ℃XIAHONGGAN,YANMO、GUOSHAI,JIDESUANHUOHUATU.②NAHUA:QUSHILIANGSUANHUOHUATU,ANZHILIANGBI1∶9JIARUSHILIANGQULIZISHUI,JUNYUNJIAOBANCHENGXUANZHUOYE;CHENGQUSHILIANGFENXICHUNNaClGUTI,JIARUXUANZHUOYEZHONG,SHINaClZHILIANGFENSHUFENBIEWEI2%、4%、6%、8%、10%、20%,JIAOBANJUNYUN,HENGWENZHENDANG30 minHOULIXIN,QUSHANGQINGYE,JIARUQULIZISHUIXIDI,ZHIZHIWUCl-;RANHOUHONGGAN、YANMO、GUOSHAI,JIDENAHUATU.③ZHUCHENG:YUNSUJIAOBANTIAOJIANXIA,ANAl/TUMOERZHILIANGBIWEI10 mmol·g-1JIANGZHUHUAYEHUANMANDIRUNAHUATUXUANZHUOYE(GU/YEZHILIANGBIWEI2%),DIJIAWANCHENGHOUJIXUJIAOBAN120 min,HENGWEN(60 ℃)LAOHUA24 h,LIXIN,QUSHANGQINGYE,QINGXI,HONGGAN,YANMO、GUOSHAI,JIDEZHUCHENGGUIZAOTU.④BEISHAO:QUSHILIANGZHUCHENGGUIZAOTUYU50 mLGANGUOZHONG,ZHIRUMAFULU,FENBIEYU100、120、150、300、600 ℃XIABEISHAO120 min,LENGQUE、YANMO、GUOSHAI,JIDEFUHEGAIXINGGUIZAOTU,MIFENGBAOCUNBEIYONG.MEIGECHULISHE3GEPINGXINGYANG,QUJUNZHIJINXINGFENXI.

  2.2.2 JINGTAIXIFUSHIYAN

  DENGWENXIFU:QUSHILIANGTIANRANHUOGAIXINGGUIZAOTUYU250 mLDEJUSAIZHUIXINGPINGZHONG,FENBIEJIARU100 mLZHILIANGNONGDUFENBIEWEI10、100、150、200、300、600、1000 mg·L-1DECd2+BIAOZHUNRONGYE,DIAOJIERONGYEpHZHIWEI5.0,FENBIEYU30、45、60 ℃ZHENDANG120 min,LIXINFENLI,YONGHUOYANYUANZIXISHOUFENGUANGGUANGDUJICEDINGQINGYEZHONGCd2+DENONGDU.MEIGECHULISHEZHI3GEPINGXINGYANG,QUJUNZHIJINXINGFENXI.

  XIFUDONGLIXUE:QUSHILIANGTIANRANHUOGAIXINGGUIZAOTUYU250 mLDEJUSAIZHUIXINGPINGZHONG,JIARU100 mLZHILIANGNONGDUWEI200 mg·L-1DECd2+BIAOZHUNRONGYE,DIAOJIERONGYEpHZHIWEI5.0,FENBIEZHENDANG5、10、15、20、30、40、60、90、120、150、240、360 min,LIXINFENLI,YONGHUOYANYUANZIXISHOUFENGUANGGUANGDUJICEDINGQINGYEZHONGCd2+DENONGDU. MEIGECHULISHEZHI3GEPINGXINGYANG,QUJUNZHIJINXINGFENXI.

  2.3 FENXIXIANGMU 2.3.1 Cd2+NONGDUCEDING

  CAIYONGAA-7002XINGYUANZIXISHOUFENGUANGGUANGDUJICEDINGCd2+NONGDU,CEDINGSHIRANSHAOTOUGAODUSHEZHIWEI5 cm,BOZHANGSHEDINGWEI283.8 nm,XIAFENGSHEDINGWEI0.2 nm.

  2.3.2 GUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGQIANHOUBIAOZHENG

  YONGXD-ZXINGZIDONGX-SHEXIANFENMOYANSHEYIFENXIGUIZAOTUGAIXINGQIANHOUWUXIANGZUCHENGBIANHUA;YONGTRAffinity-1XINGFULIYEHONGWAIGUANGPUYIFENXIGUIZAOTUGAIXINGQIANHOUHUAXUEZUCHENGDEBIANHUA;YONGJSM-6380LVXINGSAOMIAODIANZIXIANWEIJINGFENXIGUIZAOTUGAIXINGQIANHOUWEIGUANJIEGOUBIANHUA.

  2.4 SHUJUCHULI

  PINGHENGXIFUSHIYANZHONGSUOSHEJIDAODEZHONGJINSHULIZIXIFULIANGJISUANGONGSHIWEI:

(1)

  SHIZHONG,C0WEIQISHIDIANYEXIANGZHONGJINSHULIZINONGDU(mg·L-1);CeWEIPINGHENGDIANYEXIANGZHONGJINSHULIZINONGDU(mg·L-1);qeWEITIANRANGUIZAOTUPINGHENGXIFULIANG(mg·g-1); VWEIXIFURONGYETIJI(mL);mWEIGUIZAOTUTOUJIALIANG(g).

  3 JIEGUOYUTAOLUN

        3.1 GUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGGONGYIJITIAOJIAN

  CAIYONGSUANHUOHUA-NAHUA-ZHUCHENG-BEISHAOZUHEGONGYIDUIGUIZAOTUJINXINGFUHEGAIXING,FENBIEKAOCHALEBUTONGLIUSUANTIJIFENSHU(5%、10%、12%、15%、18%)、BUTONGNaClZHILIANGFENSHU(2%、4%、6%、8%、10%、20%)、BUTONGOH/AlMOERBI(1.0、2.0、2.2、2.4、2.6)、BUTONGBEISHAOWENDU(100、120、150、300、600 ℃)DUIGUIZAOTUPINGHENGXIFULIANGDEYINGXIANG,SHIYANJIEGUOJIANTU 1.

  TU 1 BUTONGGONGYITIAOJIANDUIGUIZAOTUXIFUXINGNENGDEYINGXIANG(a.H2SO4TIJIFENSHU,b.NaClZHILIANGFENSHU,c.OH/AlMOERBI,d.BEISHAOWENDU)

  3.1.1 LIUSUANTIJIFENSHUDEYINGXIANG

  SUANCHULIDEMUDEZHUYAOSHIWEILECHUNHUAGUIZAOTU,QUCHUGUOSHAI、QINGXIDENGQIANCHULIWUFAQUCHUDEZAZHI.BUTONGLIUSUANTIJIFENSHUDUIGUIZAOTUXIFUNENGLIDEYINGXIANGJIANTU 1a.YOUTUKEZHI,DANGLIUSUANTIJIFENSHUXIAOYU10%SHI,GUIZAOTUDUICd2+DEXIFULIANGSUILIUSUANTIJIFENSHUDEZENGJIAERZENGDA,DANGLIUSUANTIJIFENSHUDADAO10%HOU,GUIZAOTUDEXIFULIANGKAISHIXUNSUXIAJIANG.SHIDANGTIJIFENSHUDELIUSUANNENGYOUXIAOQUCHUBIAOMIANJIKONGDAONEIDEYOUJIZHIDENGKERONGXINGZAZHI,SHIGUIZAOTUBIAOMIANJIKONGDAOJIEGOUDEDAOGAISHAN,BIBIAOMIANJIZENGDA,YOUXIAOXIFUDIANWEIZENGDUO,YOULIYUXIFUDEFASHENG.DANGUOGAOTIJIFENSHUDELIUSUAN,YIFANGMIANHUISHIKEGUIZAOQIAOTIBIANYUAN,POHUAIWEIKONGJIEGOU,JIANGDIBIBIAOMIANJI;LINGYIFANGMIANHUISHIGUIZAOTUBIAOMIANFASHENGYANZHONGZHIZIHUA,SHIYOUXIAOXIFUDIANWEIXUNSUJIANSHAO,ZUIZHONGSHIGUIZAOTUXIFUNENGLIXIAJIANG.YINCI,SUANHUOHUAGONGYIDEZUIJIALIUSUANTIJIFENSHUXUANZEWEI10%.

  3.1.2 NaClZHILIANGFENSHUDEYINGXIANG

  NAHUADEZHUYAOMUDESHISHIGUIZAOTUKONGDAOJIEGOUJUNYIHUA,JIYONGNa+JIAOHUANCHUGUIZAOTUKONGDAOZHONGYUANBENXIEDAIDECa2+、Mg2+、Fe3+DENGLIZIBANJINGBUTONGDEJINSHUYANGLIZI,YIBIANHOUXUZHUCHENGFANYINGNENGXINGCHENGGAODUYIZHIDEZHUZHUANGQIANTI.BUTONGNaClZHILIANGFENSHUDUIGUIZAOTUXIFUNENGLIDEYINGXIANGJIANTU 1b.CONGTUZHONGKEYIKANCHU,NAHUAGUOCHENG,GUIZAOTUDUICd2+DEXIFULIANGSUIZHENaClZHILIANGFENSHUDEZENGJIAXIANZENGDAHOUJIANXIAO.GUIZAOTUDUICd2+DEXIFULIANGYUNaClZHILIANGFENSHUWEI6%SHIDADAOZUIDAZHI,WEI7.21 mg·g-1,SUIZHENaClZHILIANGFENSHUDEJIXUZENGJIA,XIFULIANGZHUJIANJIANGDI,ZHEIYUYANGXIUHONGDENG(2004)DEYANJIUYIZHI.NAHUAZHUYAOSHITONGGUONa+HEQINGJIANDEJIANHE,SHIYUANBENSHOUQINGJIANSHUFUDEQIANGJIDEYIJIHUO,BINGSHIFANGCHUH+,DAOZHIGUIZAOTUBIAOMIANFUDIANHEZENGJIA,XIFUNENGLIZENGQIANG,DANGUOLIANGDENa+HUIZHANJUBEIJIHUODEXIFUDIANWEI,YUXIFUZHIFASHENGJINGZHENGXIFU,DAOZHIXIFUNENGLIXIAJIANG.YINCI,ZUIJIANaClZHILIANGFENSHUWEI6%.

  3.1.3 OH/AlMOERBIDEYINGXIANG

  ZHUCHENGSHIFUHEGAIXINGDEHEXINBUZHOU,ZHUYAOMUDESHIWEIGUIZAOTUKONGDAOYINRUJUQIANGJIHUAHEWU,XINGCHENGZHUZHUANGTI,KUODAXIFUKONGJIAN,GOUJIANWENDINGDEKONGDAOJIEGOU.ZHUHUAYEZHONGOH/AlMOERBIDUIGUIZAOTUZUIZHONGDEGAIXINGXIAOGUOYOUZHONGYAOYINGXIANG,BUTONGOH/AlMOERBIDUIGUIZAOTUXIFUNENGLIDEYINGXIANGJIANTU 1c.CONGTUZHONGKEYIKANCHU,SUIZHEOH/AlMOERBIDEZENGJIA,GUIZAOTUDEXIFULIANGZHUJIANZENGDA,ZAIOH/AlMOERBIWEI2.2SHIDADAOZUIDAZHI,ERHOUXUNSUJIANXIAO.OH/AlMOERBIJIAODISHI,SUIZHEOH-DEJIARU,Al3+FASHENGYIXILIEZHUJISHUIJIEFANYING,BINGYURONGYEZHONGDEOH-XINGCHENGDUOZHONGQIANGJIJUHEWU,RUDANTI[Al(OH)x(H2O)(6-x)](3-x)+、ERJUTI[Al2(OH)x(H2O)(10-x)](6-x)+、DUOJUTIAlpolyHE[Al13O4(OH)(24+x)(H2O)(12-x)](7-x)+(JIANCHENGAl13);DANGOH/AlMOERBIWEI2.2SHI,XINGCHENGDEQIANGJIJUHEWUYIAl13WEIZHU,Al13NENGGOUCHONGFENYUGUIZAOTUKONGDAOZHONGNa+FASHENGJIAOHUAN,SHENGCHENGBANJINGJIAODADEJUHELIZI,ZENGDAGUIZAOTUKONGJIANJU,TONGSHIDAIRUDALIANGQIANGJI,ZENGJIAGUIZAOTUYOUXIAOXIFUDIANWEIHEFUDIANXING,YOUXIAOTIGAOGUIZAOTUXIFUNENGLI.SUIZHEOH/AlMOERBIJIXUZENGJIA,Al13SHULIANGJIANSHAO,WUXIAOJUHEWUZENGDUO,ZUIZHONGSHENGCHENGCHENDIAN,DAOZHIZHUCHENGSHIBAI.YINCI,ZAIJINXINGFUHEGAIXINGSHI,OH/AlMOERBIYINGKONGZHIZAI2.2ZUOYOUWEIYI.

  3.1.4 BEISHAOWENDUDEYINGXIANG

  BEISHAODEMUDESHIJIANGAl13ZHUANHUACHENGLAOGUWENDINGDEZHUZHUANGWU,CHONGFENTUOZHANGUIZAOTUKONGDAO,ZENGJIAGUIZAOTUKONGDAOJIEGOUDEWENDINGXING,TONGSHIKEYIYOUXIAOFANGZHIAl3+SHIFANGZAOCHENGSHUITIERCIWURAN.BEISHAOGUOCHENGWENDUSHIGUANJIANYINSU,BEISHAOWENDUDUIGAIXINGXIAOGUODEYINGXIANGJIANTU 1d.YOUTUKEZHI,DANGBEISHAOWENDUXIAOYU150 ℃SHI,GUIZAOTUDUICd2+XIFULIANGSUIZHEWENDUDESHENGGAOERBUDUANSHANGSHENG,YU150 ℃SHIDADAOZUIDAZHI,ERHOUXUNSUXIAJIANG.SHIYIDEBEISHAOWENDU(150 ℃ZUOYOU)NENGSHIJUHEWUFASHENGSHIDUDEPENGZHANG,QUCHUWUXIAOSHUI,XINGCHENGWENDINGDEZHUTIJIEGOU,SHIZHUCHENGXIAOGUOGENGJIAMINGXIAN.WENDUGUODI(<150 ℃)BUNENGXINGCHENGWENDINGDEZHUTIJIEGOU,TONGSHIYEBUNENGYOUXIAOTUOZHANXIFUKONGJIAN.WENDUGUOGAO(150~300 ℃)HUISHIQIANGJIZHUANHUACHENGSHUIFENZITUOCHU,SHIJUHEWUJIELI,WUFAXINGCHENGZHUZHUANGTI,DANGWENDUJIEJIN600 ℃SHI,BEISHAOHUIDUIGUIZAOQIAOTICHANSHENGPOHUAI,DAOZHIXIFUNENGLIYANZHONGXIAJIANG. GURENWEIZUISHIBEISHAOWENDUWEI150 ℃.

  3.2 FUHEGAIXINGGUIZAOTUXIFUXINGNENGYUXINGWEI

        3.2.1 DENGWENXIFU

  WEILELEJIEGUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGQIANHOUDUICd2+DEXIFUXINGNENGYUSHUXINGBIANHUA,KAIZHANLEDENGWENXIFUYANJIU.MUQIAN,CHANGYONGYUMIAOSHUYE/GUTIXIXIFUXINGWEIDEDENGWENXIFUMOXINGZHUYAOYOULangmuirHEFreundich,ERZHEDEXIANXINGBIAODAXINGSHIWEIJIANSHI(2)、(3).

(2)
(3)

  SHIZHONG,Ce、qeYIYITONGQIAN,RSHIRELIXUECHANGSHU,QUZHIWEI8.314 J·mol-1·K-1;TSHIRONGYEWENDU(℃);KF、kL、n、qmJUNWEIXIFUCHANGSHU.

  DUIDENGWENXIFUSHIYANSHUJUFENBIECAIYONGSHANGSHU2ZHONGMOXINGJINXINGNIHE,JIEGUOJIANBIAO 1.CONGBIAO 1ZHONGKEYIKANCHU,LangmuirHEFreundich 2ZHONGMOXINGDUIBUTONGWENDUXIATIANRANGUIZAOTUXIFUCd2+DESHUJUNIHEZHIR2ZHIFANWEIFENBIEWEI0.9954~0.9982HE0.9161~0.9384,GAIXINGGUIZAOTUDER2ZHIFANWEIFENBIEWEI0.9944~0.9984HE0.9007~0.9544.YOUCIKEJIAN,GUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGQIANHOUDUICd2+DEXIFUXINGWEIDOUGENGFUHE LangmuirMOXING.YANJIUBIAOMING,FreundichMOXINGNIHECANSHUnZHIDEDAXIAOKEYIPANDINGXIFUFANYINGDELIHUASHUXING,RENWEI:n>1,XIFUYIWULIGUOCHENGWEIZHU;n<1,XIFUYIHUAXUEGUOCHENGWEIZHU;n=1,BIAOSHIXIFUCHENGXIANXINGQUSHI.CONGNIHEJIEGUOKEZHI,WULUNSHITIANRANGUIZAOTUHAISHIGAIXINGGUIZAOTU,FreundichMOXINGXIFUCHANGSHUnZHIJUNDAYU1,SHUOMINGGAIXINGQIANHOUGUIZAOTUDUICd2+XIFUJUNYIWULIGUOCHENGWEIZHU.DALIANGDEYANJIUBIAOMING,LangmuirMOXINGNIHECANSHUqm(LILUNSHANGDEXIFUMIDUSHANGXIANZHI,YECHENGXIFURONGLIANG)KEYONGYUMIAOSHUYUHENGLIANGXIFUJIDEXIFUNENGLI,JINGUANYUSHICEZHIZHIJIANCUNZAIYIDINGDECHAYI.YOUBIAO 1KEZHI,JIEJINCHANGWENTIAOJIANXIA(T=30 ℃SHI),TIANRANGUIZAOTUDUICd2+DEXIFURONGLIANGWEI5.44 mg·g-1,ERJINGFUHEGAIXINGHOUDEGUIZAOTUXIFURONGLIANGKEDA9.60 mg·g-1,ZENGJIALE76.5%,DUOSHUDANYIGAIXINGJISHUDUIGUIZAOTUXIFURONGLIANGDETISHENGFUDUJUNBUCHAOGUO60%,SHUOMINGSUANHUOHUA-NAHUA-ZHUCHENG-BEISHAOFUHENENGYOUXIAOGAISHANGUIZAOTUKONGXIJIEGOU,XIANZHUTIGAOQIXIFUNENGLI.

   表 1 天然和改性硅藻土吸附Cd2+的Langmuir与Freundlich等温吸附模型参数

  3.2.2 XIFUDONGLIXUE

  CAIYONGYIJIDONGLIXUEHEERJIDONGLIXUEMOXINGDUITIANRANHEGAIXINGGUIZAOTUXIFUCd2+DESHIJIANDONGTAISHUJUJINXINGLENIHE,JIEGUOJIANBIAO 2.CONGBIAOZHONGKEYIKANCHU,ERJIDONGLIXUEMOXINGDENIHEYOUDU(R2ZHI)GAOYUYIJIDONGLIXUE,SHUOMINGGUIZAOTUGAIXINGQIANHOUDUICd2+DEXIFUJUNFUHEERJIDONGLIXUEMOXING.DUIXIFUSHUJUCAIYONGYIJIDONGLIXUEHEERJIDONGLIXUEMOXINGJINXINGNIHEJUNKEHUODELILUNSHANGDEqeZHI,DANERJIDONGLIXUEMOXINGNIHESUODEqeZHIGENGJIEJINSHIJIZHI,DUISHIJIYINGYONGGENGJUYOUZHIDAOYIYI.

   表 2 天然和改性硅藻土对Cd2+的吸附动力学参数

  3.3 GUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGJILIFENXI

        3.3.1 SAOMIANDIANJING(SEM)FENXI

  CAIYONGSAOMIAODIANJINGDUIGUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGQIANHOUWEIGUANXINGMAODEBIANHUAJINXINGLEFENXI,JIEGUOJIANTU 2.TU 2aWEIGUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGZHIQIANDESEMTU,CONGTUZHONGKEYIQINGXIDIKANCHU,BENYANJIUSUOYONGGUIZAOTUDECHENGYINGUIZAOWEIGUANPANZAO(Stephanodiscus),GUIZAOQIAOTIYONGYOUZHONGDUODEWEIKONG,DANYOUYUBIAOMIANCUNZAIYIDINGDEZAZHI,DAOZHIKONGXIJIEGOUBUMINGLANG,BUFENKONGDAOBEIDUSAI,ZUAILEZHONGJINSHULIZIJINRUWEIKONGFASHENGXIFUFANYING,XIANZHILEGUIZAOTUXIFUXINGNENGDEFAHUI.JINGGUOFUHEGAIXINGZHIHOU,GUIZAOTUWEIGUANXINGMAOFASHENGLEMINGXIANDEBIANHUA,ZHENGGEGUIZAOQIAOTIFASHENGLEPENGZHANG(TU 2b),SHUOMINGQIANGJILVJUHEWU(Al13)TONGGUOLIZIJIAOHUANZUOYONGCHENGGONGZHIRUGUIZAOQIAOTIKONGDAO,SHIKONGDAODEDAOLECHONGFENYOUXIAODETUOZHAN. TONGSHIFAXIANBIAOMIANDEKONGXIJIEGOUYEBIANDEQINGXIMINGLANG,SHUOMINGFUHEGAIXINGYOUXIAODIQINGCHULECUNZAIYUGUIZAOQIAOTIBIAOMIANDEZAZHI,GAISHANLEBIAOMIANJIKONGDAOJIEGOU,ZHEIYIWEIZHEBUFENXIFUDIANWEIBEIJIHUO,ZHONGJINSHULIZIJINRUGUIZAOQIAOTIDETONGDAOGENGJIASHUNCHANG,JUTIBIAOXIANWEIXIFUNENGLIDEDAOLEJIDATISHENG,JINYIBUZHENGSHILEQIANSHUSHIYANJIEGUO.

  TU 2 GUIZAOTUGAIXINGQIAN(a)、HOU(b)SEMTU

  3.3.2 XSHEXIANYANSHE(XRD)FENXI

  GUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGGUOCHENGDEXSHEXIANYANSHEFENXIJIANTU 3.CONGTUZHONGKEKANCHU,TIANRANGUIZAOTU(QUXIANa)ZHONGHANYOUSHAOLIANGDEMENGTUOSHI(2θ=15°~20.5°)HEJIAODUODEWUDINGXINGSiO2(2θ=25.5°~30.5°),JINGSUANHUOHUAHOU(QUXIANb),MENGTUOSHIYANSHEFENGQIANGDUJIANGDI,SHUOMINGMENGTUOSHIZAILIUSUANDEZUOYONGXIADEDAOLEYOUXIAODEQINGCHU.JINGNAHUAHOU(QUXIANc),WUDINGXINGSiO2YANSHEFENGJIANRUO,SHUOMINGGUIZAOTUBIAOMIANWUDINGXINGSiO2BEINaClQINGCHU.CIWAI,NAHUAGUIZAOTU001YANSHEFENGQIANGDUZENGDA,SHUOMINGGUIZAOTUJINGNAHUAHOU,KONGDAODEYIJUNYIHUA,JIEGOUBIANDEYOUXU,JIEJINGDUBIANHAO.JIXUCAIYONGZHUHUAJIZHUCHENGHOU(QUXIANd),GUIZAOTU001YANSHEFENGQIANGDUJIANGDI,JIAOWEIMISAN,SHUOMINGZHUHUAJIZHIRUGUIZAOTUKONGDAOHOU,DAOZHIKONGDAOJIEGOUWUXUXINGZENGJIA.JINGZHUCHENGHOUGUIZAOTU001YANSHEFENGXIANGXIAOJIAODUPIANYI(TUZHONGQUXIANdSUOSHI),KENENGSHIYINWEIZHUHUAJIZHONGAl13LIZIBANJINGDAYUTIANRANGUIZAOTUKONGDAOZHONGYUANBENSUOXIEDAIDEJINSHUYANGLIZI,JINGLIZIJIAOHUANZUOYONGJINRUKONGDAOHOU,SHIGUIZAOTUKONGDAOJIANJUZENGDA.QUXIANe、f、gFENBIEWEIBUTONGBEISHAOWENDUSHIDEXRDTU,CONGZHONGKEYIKANCHU,FANGSHIYINGDUIYINGDEYANSHEFENGBUDUANZENGQIANG,SHIYINGSUODUIYINGDEYANSHEFENGBUDUANJIANRUO,SHUOMINGBEISHAOSHIGUIZAOTUWUXIANGYOUSHIYINGXIANGFANGSHIYINGZHUANBIAN.

  TU 3 GUIZAOTUXRDTU(a.TIANRANGUIZAOTU,b.SUANHUOHUATU,c.NAHUATU,d.ZHUCHENGTU, e. 150 ℃BEISHAOTU,f. 300 ℃BEISHAOTU,g. 600 ℃BEISHAOTU)

  3.3.3 HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPU(IR)FENXI

  TONGGUOHONGWAIGUANGPUFENXIKEYILEJIEGUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGQIANHOUGUANNENGTUANDEBIANHUA,TU 4WEIGUIZAOTUFUHEGAIXINGQIANHOUHONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUTU.YOUTUKEZHI,TIANRANGUIZAOTUGUANGPUTUZHONGCHUXIANLE3GEQIANGXISHOUPUDAI,FENBIEWEIYU457.12、1033.84、3500 cm-1CHU,FENBIEDUIYINGGUIYANGSIMIANTIZHONGO—Si—OFANDUICHENGWANQUZHENDONG、Si—O—SiSHENSUOZHENDONGHEQIANGJIXISHOUDAI(BAOKUOYUSHUIJIANHEDEBIAOMIANQIANGJIQINGJIAN).CIWAI,TIANRANGUIZAOTUPUTUHAICHUXIANLEYIXIEXIAODEXISHOUPUDAI,QIZHONG,3840.2 cm -1CHUWEIGULISi—OHFENG,1630 cm-1CHUWEISHUIFENZIDEWANQUZHENDONGDAI,777.31 cm-1CHUWEIDUICHENGSi—O—SiSHENSUOZHENDONG(SiOHJITUANZHENDONG),677.01 cm-1CHUWEISi—OJIAN.

  TU 4 GUIZAOTUGAIXINGQIANHOUHONGWAIGUANGPUTU

  JINGFUHEGAIXINGHOU,PUTUZHONGYUE3500 cm-1CHUFENGKUANZENGJIA,BINGZAIDIBOSHUFANGXIANGCHUXIANXINFENG,SHUOMINGJUQIANGJIJINSHUYANGLIZIJINRUGUIZAOTUKONGDAO,DAOZHIQICENGJIANSHUIHANLIANGZENGJIA.ER3618.45 cm-1CHUHE1033.84 cm-1CHUSi—OHWANQUZHENDONGFENGMINGXIANJIANRUO,SHUOMINGZHUHUAJIYUGUIZAOTUZHONGSi—OHCUNZAIHUAHEZUOYONG.LinDENG(2007)YANJIUZHICHU,1033.84 cm-1CHUXISHOUFENGQIANGDUJIANGDISHIYINWEIZHUHUAJISHIFANGH+JINRUGUIYANGSIMIANTIHOU,YUQIZHONGDEQIANGJIFASHENGSHUIHEZUOYONG.JUQIANGJILVZHUCHENGHOU,1350~1550 cm-1CHUDEPUFENGMINGXIANJIANRUO,SHUOMINGSi—O—SiJIANJIANSHAO,KENENGSHIYINWEIJUQIANGJILVYUGUIZAOTUSIMIANTIZHONGSi—O—SiFASHENGZUOYONG,ZHEIYUSEMHEXRDFENXIXIANGYIZHI.CIWAI,1500 cm-1CHUDEYOUJIFENG(C—H)ZHUJIANJIANRUO,SHUOMINGGAIXINGHOUYOUJIWUBEIQUCHU;3618.45 cm -1CHUKUANFENGQIANGDUJIANRUO,SHUOMINGGUIZAOTUXIEDAIDEZIYOUSHUIJIYINZHUCHENGERZENGDUODEZIYOUSHUIJINGGAOWENBEISHAOQUCHU,SHIDEFUHEGAIXINGGUIZAOTUKONGDAOJIEGOUGENGJIAWENDING.

  4 JIELUN

  1)GUIZAOTUZUIJIAFUHEGAIXING(SUANHUOHUA-NAHUA-ZHUCHENG-BEISHAO)GONGYITIAOJIANWEI:LIUSUANTIJIFENSHU10%,NaClZHILIANGFENSHU6%,OH/AlMOERBI2.2,BEISHAOWENDU150 ℃.JINGFUHEGAIXINGHOU,GUIZAOTUDUICd2+DEXIFURONGLIANGYOUYUANLAIDE5.44 mg·g-1TISHENGZHI9.60 mg·g-1,TISHENGLE76.5%,XIFUXINGNENGDEDAOLEXIANZHUGAISHAN.JUTICANJIANZILIAO 

  2)改性前后硅藻土对Cd2+的吸附属性没有发生改变,均符合Langmuir等温吸附模型和二级动力学模型,吸附以物理过程为主.SEM、XRD和IR分析结果均表明,经复合改性,硅藻土壳体杂质得到清除,聚合羟基铝离子(Al13)成功引入硅藻土孔道并发挥柱撑作用,硅藻土壳体孔隙结构得到了充分改善.

 

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